Patterns in Functional Programming

Prompted by some recent work I’ve been doing on reasoning about monadic computations, I’ve been looking back at the work from the 1990s by Phil Trinder, Limsoon Wong, Leonidas Fegaras, Torsten Grust, and others, on monad comprehensions as a framework for database queries.

The idea goes back to the adjunction between extension and intension in set theory—you can define a set by its extension, that is by listing its elements:

$latex \displaystyle \{ 1, 9, 25, 49, 81 \} &fg=000000$

or by its intension, that is by characterizing those elements:

$latex \displaystyle \{ n^2 \mid 0 < n < 10 \land n \equiv 1 (\mathop{mod} 2) \} &fg=000000$

Expressions in the latter form are called set comprehensions. They inspired a programming notation in the SETL language from NYU, and have become widely known through list comprehensions in languages like Haskell. The structure needed of sets or…

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